Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high elevation. As the latitude of a location approaches the poles, the threshold elevation for alpine tundra gets lower until it reaches sea level, and alpine tundra merges with polar tundra. The high elevation causes an adverse climate, which is too cold and windy to support tree growth. Alpine tundra transitions to sub-alpine forests below the tree line ; stunted forests occurring at the forest-tundra ecotone are known as Krummholz. With increasing elevation it ends at the snow line where snow and ice persist through summer. Alpine tundra occurs in mountains worldwide. The flora of the alpine tundra is characterized by dwarf shrubs close to the ground.
It's the Year of the Tundra at Rocky Mountain National Park!
A defining feature of the tundra is the distinct lack of trees. There are a variety of reasons trees don't grow in this region. First, the permafrost prevents them from taking root, then those that do manage it have shallow root systems that are not an ideal anchor to withstand the high winds. Finally, low precipitation means there is not enough water to support trees. For most of the year, the tundra biome is a cold, frozen landscape. This biome has a short growing season, followed by harsh conditions that the plants and animals in the region need special adaptations to survive. Tundra form in two distinct cold and dry regions. Arctic tundra are found on high-latitude landmasses, above the Arctic Circle—in Alaska, Canada, Russia, Greenland, Iceland, and Scandinavia, for example—or on far southern regions, like Antarctica. Alpine tundra are located at very high elevations atop mountains, where overnight temperatures fall below freezing. Tundra regions typically get less than 25 centimeters 10 inches of precipitation annually, which means these areas are also considered deserts.
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Scattered trees grow in some tundra regions. The ecotone or ecological boundary region between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline. The tundra soil is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus. There are three regions and associated types of tundra: Arctic tundra,  alpine tundra ,  and Antarctic tundra. Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere , north of the taiga belt. The word "tundra" usually refers only to the areas where the subsoil is permafrost , or permanently frozen soil. Permafrost tundra includes vast areas of northern Russia and Canada. Arctic tundra contains areas of stark landscape and is frozen for much of the year. Instead, bare and sometimes rocky land can only support certain kinds of Arctic vegetation , low growing plants such as moss, heath Ericaceae varieties such as crowberry and black bearberry , and lichen. There are two main seasons, winter and summer, in the polar tundra areas.
Tundra , a major zone of treeless level or rolling ground found in cold regions, mostly north of the Arctic Circle Arctic tundra or above the timberline on high mountains alpine tundra. Tundra is known for large stretches of bare ground and rock and for patchy mantles of low vegetation such as mosses , lichens , herbs, and small shrubs. This surface supports a meagre but unique variety of animals. The Finns called their treeless northern reaches the tunturi , but the concept of a vast frozen plain as a special ecological realm called tundra was developed by the Russians. One constant factor shaping the tundra is alternate freezing and thawing of the ground. Along with the factors mentioned above, this freeze-thaw cycle sets the tundra apart from two ecosystems frequently found adjacent to it—the icy polar barrens on the one hand and the evergreen taiga on the other. Permafrost —perennially frozen ground—is a significant feature of the Arctic tundra; however, it does not typically occur in alpine regions. The southern limit of Arctic tundra follows the northern edge of the coniferous forest belt. The northward bulge of forest in Eurasia is a result of the warmer summers that occur over that large contiguous landmass. This habitat can be found in mountainous areas worldwide, occurring at high elevations where temperatures are too low and winds are too strong for the growth of trees.